Chiloquin is located at the confluence of the Williamson and Sprague rivers in the heart of the Three Rivers Recreation area of Klamath County. The third river is the Wood River, which lies between Fort Klamath and Chiloquin.

Abundant national and state forest lands surround the area, which is heavily studded with pine, aspen and cottonwood forests, rivers and lakes and stretches of fields, and is noted for its fishing, hunting, camping and skiing opportunities.